Vending machine

Abstract

Claims

March 12, 1957 E. J. LUX 2,784,872 VENDING MACHINE Filed Dec. 19, 1952 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 JTTORNEY March 12, 1957 y; VENDING MACHINE 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 19, 1952 A T OR NE Y E. J. LUX 2,784,872 3 Sheets-Sheet s IXI'EXTO R. [bar-Me J1 0x B Y m2 .m A! TTOR NE Y March 12, 1957. VENDING MACHINE Filed Dec. 19, 1952 VENDING MACHINE Eugene J. Lux, Miami, Fla. Application December 19, 1952, Serial No. 326,850 13 Claims. (Cl. 221 207) The invention herein disclosed relates to vending machines, and more particularly to the article delivery portions of such machines. Objects of the invention are to provide a machine which will be self-compensating to the extent of adjusting itself to the handling of articles differing in size and shape which, if required, can be readily adjusted to deliver articles within a certain range of size. Special objects of the invention are to provide a machine which will handle a considerable number of pack ages and which may be readily charged with fresh packages as needed. Other special objects of the invention are to provide a simple, practical mechanism for effecting the results outlined and one which may be produced at reasonably low cost. Other desirable objects and the novel features through which the purposes of the invention are attained are set forth or will appear in the course of the following specification. The drawings accompanying and forming part of the specification illustrate present practical embodiments of the invention but structure may be modified and changed as regards present illustrations, all within the true intent and broad scope of the invention as hereinafter defined and claimed. Fig. 1 in the drawings is a broken longitudinal sectional view of the article delivery mechanism of a vending machine having features of the invention incorporated therein, and showing the parts in the rest position with two packages at the front of the horizontal magazine, segregated and ready for discharge; Fig. 2 is a similar view showing the two front packages being discharged and the following horizontal row of packages stopped preparatory to positioning the next pair of packages; Fig. 3 is a broken transverse sectional view taken on substantially the plane of line 3-3 of Fig. 1, showing the friction dog or pawl for holding the follower slide forward against retractive movement; Fig. 4 is a broken transverse sectional view on sub stantially the plane of line 4-4 of Fig. 1, showing the forward face of the follower or feed slide; Fig. 5 is a broken longitudinal sectional view of the machine on a plane at one side of the delivery mechanism, showing the pull knob and rack mechanism for actuating the ratchet bar which advances the follower and trips the delivery door shown in Figs. 1 and 2; Fig. 6 is a broken elevation of the opposite side of the delivery mechanism, showing the push link for opening the delivery door; Fig. 7 is a broken cross sectional detail of the coin release mechanism, illustrating the coin in the release position; Fig. 8 is a generally similar cross sectional view showing the stop bolt locked in position due to absence of a coin at the bottom of the coin chute; Fig. 9 is a similar view showing thebolt released and nited States Patent 0 operating to drop a coin from the bottom of the chute; Fig. 10 is a broken horizontal sectional view as on the plane of line 1(l10 of Fig. 5, showing the wedge which is operated by the rack bar to shift the locking bolt and which in turn holds the rack bar against movement when the bolt is in the locking position; Fig. 11 is a broken longitudinal sectional view of a modified form of article delivery mechanism, utilizing a chain instead of ratchet feed for the follower slide and alternate delivery from adjoining horizontal magazines; Fig. 12 is a broken horizontal section and partial plan view of the mechanism shown in Fig. 11; Fig. 13 is a broken sectional and side elevational view as on substantially the plane of line 13-13 of Fig. 12, showing parts in the normal, rest position; Fig. 14 is a similar view showing the same parts in the position ready for delivering an article from one of the two adjoining rows of articles. The machine shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is illustrated as delivering two articles at a time, such for example as packages 15 of cigarettes, seated in a stack or row in a horizontally extending magazine 16. The two items at the front of the row rest on a trapdoor 17 against a stop or bumper 18 on the back of a door or closure 19, more or less covering the front of the magazine. This front or cover door 19 is shown carried by a horizontal hinge 20 at the top and as having the bumper hingedly mounted on the back of the same, at 21, and adjustably positioned by the screw and nut connection 22, 23. The trap-door 17 is shown pivoted at 24 to rock forwardly and back and as having a pin 25 extended at one side connected by link 26, Fig. 6, with a pin 27 extended as a crank from the cover door 19. A spring 28 is shown in Fig. 6 connected with pin 25 to pull the trap-door 17 down into the supporting position and to hold the front door 19 closed, as in Fig. l. The row of packages 15 in the horizontal magazine is advanced by a follower 29 slidingly guided in the magazine and carrying a pusher in the form of a plate 30 pivoted at the top at 31 so that it may rock forward or back to engage the end package of the row. This pusher plate is yieldingly thrust forward by a spring 32. Pivoted to the lower portion of the back of the pusher plate, at 33, is a lever 34 having a cam 35 positioned to engage a pin 36 on a spring pressed pawl 37. The pawl 37 is guided at 38 for vertical movement on the back of the follower slide and thrust downward by spring 39 into engagement with the teeth of a ratchet bar 46. The ratchet bar 40 is shown guided at opposite ends at 41 and 42, for horizontal sliding movement beneath the magazine and as connected by a cross bar 43 with a rack bar 44, Fig. 5, engaged by a gear segment 45 pivoted at 46 and having an arm 47 connected by pivot link 48 with a horizontally acting pull-rod 49 having an operating knob 50 exposed at the front of the machine. A spring 51 connected with the cross bar 43 serves to return the connected rack and ratchet bars to the forward position shown in Figs. 1 and 5, and it will be evident that an outward pull of the knob 50 will be effective through the gear segment and rack to retract these members to the position indicated in Fig. 2. In the inward or retractive movement of these parts the follower slide is held to its previously advanced position by a holding dog or pawl 52, Figs. 1 and 3, pivoted on the back of the follower slide at 31 and engaging with a wedge effect in the inclined trough or slot 53 in the floor of the magazine, the same slot through which the spring pressed pawl projects into engagement with the ratchet 40. The cam lever 34 pivoted on the back of the pusher plate 30, is shown as extending through a slot 54 in the holding pawl and as carrying a pinv 55 at the back of this pawl to, draw it forwardly into frictional engagement with. the bottom. of the magazine. The trap-door 17 which supports the two foremost packages, is rockedtto discharge these packages by a hooklike projection 56 on the outer end of the ratchet bar 40, positioned to engage a roll 57 dependent from the bottom of the trap-door. A holdback function of the trap-door is accomplished by a, dependent segment 58 at the back edge of this door which rises in front of the row of packages in back of the two foremost units, as indicated in Figs. 1 and 2. Suitable coin release or like mechanism may be employed, the same being here shown as a coin chute 59, Figs. 7, 8, 9, having a rest 60 for. the coin 61 at the bottom, and open, at one side, at 62, to admit a feeler 63 arranged to control a locking bar 64. The feeler 63 is shown pivoted at 65in position to be displaced by a coin in the bottom of the coin chute, and connected at 66 to.lift a detent 67 from in front of a shoulder 68 on the bar 64. The latter is shown as carrying an abutment pin 69 engaged by the inclined wedge face 70 of a dependent projection 71- carried by the cross bar 43 which connects the ratchet and rack bars 40 and 44; A spring 72, Figs. 4, 8 and 9, is shown holding the locking bar 64 over with the pin 69 thereon engaged with the Wedge incline 70, so that the effect of thewedge when shifted inward by the carriage made up of the rack and ratchet bars, will be to shift the locking bar 64 to the right as in ljig. 9, to permit the carriage to continue its inward movement and to enable the locking bar, through the projection 73 on the end thereof, to rock the coin support 60 about its pivotal center 74 to drop the coin, usually into a suitable safe or receptacle. From this it will be clear that when there is no coin in the bottom of the chute the feeler 63, as shown in Fig. 8, will position the detent 67 in front of shoulder 68 on the locking bar 64, and this bar then, through the medium of the-pin 69 thereon will, by engagement with the wedge face 70, hold the projection71 against inward movement, and this being connected Withthe sliding carriage made up of the rack bar 44 and ratchet bar 40 will prevent the inward movement required to actuate the delivery carriage. When, however, a proper coin is dsposited in the chute the feeler 63 will be displaced, as shown in Fig. 7, to lift the detent 67 from the blocking poistion and thus permit the lock slide 64 to be shifted to the Fig. 9 position to release the coin from the chute and to permit inward travel of the delivery carriage. The second form of the invention illustrated in Figs. 11 to 14, differs from the first form disclosed particularly in that delievry is effected through a chain travelling always in the same direction, instead of by means of a ratchet which mustbe reciprocated in opposite directions, and in that the capacity of the machine is doubled by locating. two magazines in parallel, one alongside the other, and effecting alternate delivery of the packages from the two magazines. Figs. 11 and 12 show the two magazines 81 and 82 in side-by-side, horizontal relation, separated by an intermediate partition 83 for two separate. rows of articles or packages 84. The pivoted, spring tensioned pusher 30' carried by the follower or feed slide 29, in this case is split as indicated at 85, to reach down into engagement with the rows of packages at opposite sides of the partition 83, and the forward packages in the adjoining rows rest against the front stops 86, which may be adjustable for different size packages as indicated at 86a. The spring pressed pawl 37 on the back of the follower slide, in this case instead of engaging the teeth on a ratchet bar, is arranged to engage the cross links on a ladder chain 87. This chain is shown carried by sprocket wheels 88, 89, the forward one, 88, on a shaft 90 which turns to advance the chain in a forward feeding direction only. Figs. l2, l3 and 14 show the shaft 90 as having a ratchet 91 fixed thereon and engaged by a pawl 92 on a gear 93 loose on the shaft and engegable by the rack 94 on a slide 95. The latter is shown as retracted by a spring 96 and as provided at the front with an exposed knob 97' by which the slide and rack may be drawn out to the position shown in Fig. 14. The normal position of rest is that shown in Fig. 13, with the spring 96 holding the rack slide in the innermost position. By pulling outward on the knob 97 the slide will be Withdrawn, the gear 93 carrying the pawl 92 clicking idly over ratchet 91 on the chain-bearing shaft 907 When the knob is released the spring 96 will retract the slide 95, causing rack 94 to turn gear 93 in the opposite direction, in which case the pawl 92 will carry the ratchet 91 along with it causing chain 87, through engagement with spring pressed pawl 37, to advance the follower in the article delivery direction. Alternate delivery ofthe articles from the side-by-side located magazines is effected by a shaft 98 journaled across the discharge end of the magazines and carrying diametrically opposite radial arms 99 and 100, at opposite ends of the shaft in line with the respective magazines, and operating through slots 101, 102 in the front'supporting shelf 103 which carries the adjustable front steps 86. This shaft. is turned a half revolution at each article delivery through the mechanism shown in Figs. 13 and 14, and comprising the parallel arms 104, 105, pivoted on slide at 106, 107, and connected in parallel relation by pivot link 108, said arms being urged by spring 109 against a stop 110 and carrying at their upper ends angularly projecting pins 111, 112, to engage the radial teeth or shoulders 113 on the end of shaft 98. A ratchet on shaft 98, Figs. 13 and 14, holds the shaft 98 against reverse rotation and insures that this shaft will turn only in the article delivery direction, that is, lefthandedly in Fig. 11. When the slide 95 is drawn outward by knob 97 from the rest position shown in Fig. 13, the pins 111, 112 011 the upper ends of pivoted arms 104, 105, engaging the teeth 113 on shaft 98, will rock the arms downwardragainst tension of spring 109, but in the reverse movement of the slide 95 the pins on the upper ends of the arms will engage the spurs or teeth 113 and turn shaft 98 a half revolution, thus to cause the arms 99 or 100, whichever are in position beneath an article on thedischarge shelf 103, to lift that article and deliver it from in back of the front stops 86, as indicated in broken lines in Fig. 11. To provide the clearance spaces for the delivery arms 99 and 100, the article supporting shelf 103 may be made up of spaced strips, as indicated in Fig. 12, carrying the stop shoulders 86 at their outer ends. Operation The delivery mechanism is locked when there is no coin in the coin chute or receptacle 59, for at this time the feeler 63 locates the detent 67 in front of stop shoulder 68 on the lock bar 64, Fig. 8, and this bar, bypositioning pin 69 thereon in front of wedge incline 70 on bar 71, Figs. 5 and 10, prevents inward movement of the connected rack bar 44 and ratchet bar 40. When a proper coin is deposited in the chute the feeler will be displaced as in Fig. 7, to release locking bar 64 which, being then free to slide, will permit inward movement of rack bar 44 and the connected ratchet .bar.40 Thus after deposit of a proper coin theknob 50, Fig. 5, may be pulled outward to cause gear segment 45 to thrust the rack 44 inward which, through cross connection 43, will carry with it the ratchet bar 40. On inward movement of the ratchet 40 the follower slide 29 will be held by the friction pawl 52 in its advanced position, with the spring pawl 37 clicking idly over the ratchet teeth until the hook 56 on the outer end of the ratchet engages the roller 57 to rock the trap-door 17 to the throwout or article delivery position shown in Fig. 2. As this action takes place the trap-door lifts the stop segment 58 into position to hold back the balance of packages in the magazine. In this delivery action the trap-door 17, by means of the link 26, lifts the front or cover door 19 to freely discharge the article or articles. When pull on the knob 50 is released the spring 51 will pull the connected ratchet and rack bars forward to the Fig. 1 position and in so doing, the ratchet bar will carry the spring pawl and hence the follower slide along with it, that is, up to a point where backward pressure on the pusher plate 30 will force back this plate sufficiently to cause cam lever 34 to lift the spring pawl and release it from engagement with the ratchet. This automatic release of the repressible spring pusher plate enables the apparatus to take care of appreciable variations in package size. The movement effected by the knob 50 and return spring 51 is somewhat more than sufficient to accomplish delivery of a full size article or articles, thus to assure delivery for each operation of the machine. After the trap-door is tripped to effect delivery at the end of the inward movement of ratchet 40 and the remaining row of articles stopped as indicated in Fig. 2, the release of pull on the hand knob 50 will permit the spring 51 to return the ratchet to the forward position shown in Fig. l, and this will cause the trap-door to drop down and the front door connected therewith by link 26, to close to in Fig. 1 position by reason of the dependent roll 57 of the trap-door being engaged by a shoulder 114 in back of the hook 56 which tips the trap-door back to lowered position, the cam track 115 on the following portion of the ratchet serving then to hold the trap-door in the lowered relation. The ratchet bar 40 is thus utilized to rock the trapdoor and lower the front door and to hold these parts in the closed position ready to support and hold the packages advanced by the follower. In the forward return movement of the ratchet, starting with the Fig. 2 position, the follower will be advanced by reason of engagement of the spring pawl 37 with the ratchet teeth, and as the front package comes into engagement with the bumper or stop 18, advancement of the row of packages will be halted and further forward movement of the ratchet and the follower slide will cause the spring tensioned pusher plate 30 to yield and possibly to keep on yielding until the cam lever 34 is caused to lift the latch or pawl 37 and thus permit the ratchet to continue to the full forward end of its stroke. T he follower will then be held in its forwardly advanced position by the frictional holding pawl 52. The cam lever 34 is guided and supported in a slot 116 in the follower so that as it is pushed back it will be capable of lifting the latch. The cross pin 55 on the free end of the cam lever serves, by engagement with the back of the holding pawl 52, to limit the forward spring pressed position of the pusher plate 30. The front stop 18 may be adjusted by the thumb-nut 23 to locate the forward package or packages to be delivered, in proper position on the delivery or trap-door 17. As shown in Fig. l, the bumper 18 should be adjusted so as to hold the package or packages to be delivered on the trap-door in alignment with the rearward edge, so that only the one selected and segregated unit will be discharged. This enables at package or a unit made up of 6 one or more packages of the extent between the bumper and the rearward edge of the trap-door, to be delivered for each operation. The magazine 16 being open at the top, may be readily loaded with packages placed in front of the follower, and the machine may be so constructed that an attendant may easilv keep the machine properly loaded. In the second embodiment of the invention illustrated in Figs. 11 to 14, the same automatic self-compensation of feed is effected by providing a yieldable pusher which will feed a row of articles up against a front stop and then yield and, in so yielding, effect disconnection of the pusher from an actuating member. In this case, however, the actuating member instead of being a ratchet, is a ladder type chain 87 engageable by the spring pawl 37. This chain is advanced in a forward feeding direction by first pulling out the knob 97 on slide 95, Fig. 13, the rack 94 on this slide turning the gear 93 idly in this movement and the spring 96 drawing the rack backward as pull on the knob is released, whereupon the pawl 92 carried by gear 93 will, by engagement with ratchet 91, turn the shaft 90, carrying the ladder chain in the forward feeding direction. In this case also, when the front article 84 is halted by the front stop 86, the pusher plate 30 will yield, and in yielding possibly lift the latch from engagement with the feed chain, thus automatically compensating for variations in package size. Article delivery is effected in this second form of the invention by the radial discharge fingers 99, 160, on shaft 98, which is turned a half revolution for each delivery, these fingers positioned radially opposite and in alignment with side-by-side magazines 81, 82, Fig. 12, so as to pick up an article first from the end of one magazine and then from the end of the other magazine. The necessary ha-lf revolution for each delivery is effected by engagement of the pins 111, 1.12 on levers 104, 105, with the radial teeth 113 fixed to shaft 93, Fig. 14, on retraction of the rack slide 95 by spring 96. This action is indicated in dotted lines, Fig. 11. On the outward movement of the rack carrying slide 95, that is, from the Fig. 13 to the Fig. 14 position, the parallel levers 104, 105, will yield with the pins 111, 112, passing under the radial teeth or shoulders 113 without imparting any movement to shaft 98, said shaft being held against reverse motion by the ratchet, Fig. 12. The mechanism is relatively simple and comprises relatively few parts not liable to get out of order. The action of the feed mechanism to compensate for articles varying in size is wholly automatic, requiring no attention on the part of the operator. Instead of toothed members such as shown, other forms of drive members may be employed and other forms of releasable, variable clutch connections between that member and the pusher be utilized. The cam track 115 on the forward end of the ratchet bar serves to hold and lock the trap-door 17 and the front stop 18 in article holding position, as indicated in Fig. l, and this relation is not changed until article delivery is to be effected. The hinged coin rest 60 at the foot of the coin chute is shown in Figs. 7, 8, 9, as normally held in the closed, coin supporting position by spring 117. The articles handled by the machine may be delivered into a suitable pocket or receptacle 118. What is claimed is: 1. An article vending machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row of articles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by an article at the front of a row, a yieldable pusher on the follower for engagement with the article at the inner end of the row, a drive member for advancing the follower, a releasable connection between said follower and drive member and means operated by said yieldable pusher for effecting the. release of said connectionfrom said drive member. t 2. An article vending machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row. of articles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by an article at the front of'a row, a yieldable pusher on the follower for engagement with. the article at the inner end of the row, a drive member for advancing the follower, a releasable connection between said follower and drive member, means operated bysaid yieldable pusher for effecting the release of said connection from said drive member and means for varying the position of said front stop in relation to said follower in accordance with the size of the articles in the magazine. 3. An article vending machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row of articles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by an article at the front of a row, a yieldable pusher on the follower for engagement with the article at the inner end of the row, a drive member for advancing the follower, a releasable connection between said follower and drive member, means operated by said yieldable pusher for effecting the release of said connection from said drive member and means for tripping said front stop to discharge articles at the front of the row. 4. An article vending machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row of articles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by an article at the front of a row, a yieldable pusher on the follower for engagement with the article at the inner end of the row, a drive member for advancing the follower, a releasable connection between said follower and drive member, means operated by said yieldable pusher for effecting the release of said connection from said drive member and a holding pawl for retaining the follower in forwardly advanced position. 5. An article vending machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row of articles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by an article at the front of a row, a yieldable pusher on the follower for engagement with the article at the inner end of the row, a drive member for advancing the follower, a releasable connection between said follower and drive member and means operated by said yieldable pusher for effecting the release of said connection from said drive member, said drive member being of toothed construction and said releasable. connection including a pawl engageable with the teeth of said member. 6. An article vending machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row of articles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by an article at the front of a row, a yieldable pusher on the follower for engagement with the article at the inner end of the row, a drive member for advancing the follower, a releasable connection between said follower and drive member and means operated by said yieldable pusher for effecting the release of said connection from said drive member, said drive member including a ratchet bar and said releasable connection including a spring latch engageable with the teeth of said ratchet bar. 7. An article vending machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row of articles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by an article at the front of a row, a yieldable pusher on the follower for engagement with the article at the inner end of the row, a drive member for advancing the follower, a releasable connection between said follower and drive member and means operated by said yieldable pusher for effecting the release of said connection from said drive member, said drive member including a ratchet bar and said releasable connection including a spring latch engageable with the teeth of said ratchet bar and meansoperableby said ratchet barfor. shifting said front stop to release the article at the front. of the row. 8. An article vending machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row ofarticles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by an article at the front of a row, a yieldable pusher on the follower for engagement with the article at the inner end of the row, a drive member for advancing the follower, a releasable connection between said follower and drive member and means operated by said yieldable pusher for effecting the release of said connection from said drive member, said front stop in.- cluding a movable abutment adjustable in relation to said pusher; engageable by the front article, and a trap-door positioned to support the article engaged with said abutment and means connecting said trap-door and front stop for conjoint operation of said trap-door and front stop to release the front article supported on the trap-door against said abutment. 9. An article vending machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row of articles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by an article at the front of a row, a yieldable pusher on the follower for engagement with the article at the inner end of the row, a drive member for advancing the follower, a releasable connection between said follower and drive member and means operated by said yieldable pusher for effecting the release of said connection from said drive member, a trap-door positioned to support the front article of the row and mounted for rocking movement to discharge the article supportedv thereon and means for effecting rocking movement of said trap-door and for shifting the front step out of holding engagement with the front article. 10. An article vending'machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row of articles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by an article at the front of a row, a yieldable pusher on. the follower for engagement with the article at the inner end of the row, a drive member for advancing the follower, a releasable connection between said. follower and drive member and means operated by said yieldable pusher for effecting the release of said connection from said drive member, a trap-door positionedsto support the front article of the row and mounted for rocking movement to discharge the article supported thereon and means for effecting rocking movement of said trap-door and for shifting the front stop out of holding engagement with the front article, said trapdoor having a dependent holdback extension for engagement with succeeding articles of the row when the trap-door is rocked into discharge position. ll. An article vending machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row of articles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by anarticle at the front of a row, a yieldable pusher on the follower for engagement with the article at the inner end of the row, a drive member for advancing the follower, a releasable connection between said follower and drive member and means operated by said yieldable pusher for effecting the release of said connection from said drive member, said drive member being a continuous chain and the releasable connection including a retractable pawl engageable with the links of said chain. 12. An article vending machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row of articles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by an article at the front of a row, a yieldable pusher on the follower for engagement with the article at the inner end of the row, a drive member for advancing the follower, a releasable connection between said follower and drive member and means operated by said yieldable pusher for effecting the release of saidconnection from said drive member, and'meansoperable by said drive member for shifting said front stop out of article holding position and for returning it to and securing it in the article holding position. 13. An article vending machine comprising a generally horizontal magazine, a follower for advancing a row of articles supported in said magazine, a front stop for engagement by an article at the front of a row of articles in the magazine, means for effecting adjustment of said front stop in respect to said follower in accordance with the size of articles in the magazine, a drive member having a feed stroke greater than the approximate size of said articles, a disconnectible connection between said drive member and said follower and a pusher on said follower engageable with the last article in the row and said pusher being yieldable to pressure of the articles against the front stop and means operated by said yieldable pusher for effecting release of said disconnectible connection in the course of the yielding movement of the same. References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Slough Feb. 28, 1893 Johnson Apr. 9, 1912 Wells et al. May 18, 1915 Fried NOV. 2, 1920 Miles et a1. Sept. 23, 1924 Ash Feb. 9, 1926 Noble Apr. 9, 1929 Hitchman Oct. 27, 1931 Bogoslowsky Jan. 26, 1932 Rabens Ian. 15, 1946 Laird Dec. 20, 1949 Rifkin et a1. Sept. 19, 1950 Sadler Dec. 16, 1952 Newcomer Mar. 24, 1953 Gabrielsen July 7, 1953 Gabrielsen Oct. 4, 1955

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